Submission Preparation ChecklistAs part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
- The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
- The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
- Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
- The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
- The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
- If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.
Manuscripts should be submitted by one of the authors of the manuscript through the online Manuscript management System. Regardless of the source of the word-processing tool, only electronic Word (.doc, .docx,) files can be submitted. Only online submissions are advised strongly to facilitate rapid publication and minimize administrative costs. Submissions by anyone other than the main author will not be accepted. The submitting author takes responsibility for the paper during submission and peer review.
Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere and are not currently under consideration by another journal. The submitting author is responsible for ensuring that the article's publication has been approved by all the other co authors. It is also the authors' responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular institution are submitted with the approval of the necessary institution. Only an acknowledgment from the editorial office officially establishes the date of receipt. Further correspondence and proofs will be sent to the author(s) before publication unless otherwise indicated. It is a condition of submission of a paper that the authors permit editing of the paper for readability.
TYPES OF PAPERS
1. Original research papers:
Papers that include original empirical data that have not been published anywhere earlier (except as an abstract). Null/negative findings and replication/refutation findings are also welcome. This type of paper normally should not exceed 25 double-spaced pages of text (including references) and should contain no longer than 15 figures/tables. We advise a length of 3000-6000 words (including everything). This type of paper should follow the structure of Abstract, Introduction, Methodology, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgements, Competing Interests, Authors’ Contributions, Consent (where applicable), Ethical approval (where applicable), and References plus figures and/or tables.
2. Short Research Articles:
These may be small single-result findings. Such articles can be brief but need to include enough information, particularly in the methods and results sections, that a reader could understand what was done. We advise a length of 3000-4000 words, plus 3-4 figures and/or tables, and 15-20 key references. This type of paper should follow the structure of Abstract, Introduction, Methodology, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgements, Competing Interests, Authors’ Contributions, Consent (where applicable), Ethical approval (where applicable), and References plus figures and/or tables.
3. Short communications:
Short Communications are urgent communications of important preliminary results that are very original, of high interest and likely to have a significant impact on the subject area of the journal. A Short Communication needs only to demonstrate a ‘proof of principle’. Authors are encouraged to submit a Original Research Paper to the journal following their Short Communication. We advise a length of 2500-3500 words, plus 2-3 figures and/or tables, and 15-20 key references. This type of paper should follow the structure of Abstract, Introduction, Methodology, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgements, Competing Interests, Authors’ Contributions, Consent (where applicable), Ethical approval (where applicable), and References plus figures and/or tables.
4. Review papers:
These papers will not have empirical data acquired by the authors but will include discussion of papers published and data acquired in a specific area. We advise a length of 5000-9000 words, (including 50-150 references plus 3-5 figures and/or tables (if required).
5. Mini review papers:
Mini reviews are brief historical perspectives, or summaries of developments in fast-moving areas covered within the scope of the journal. They must be based on published articles; they are not outlets for unpublished data. We advise a length of 3000-6000 words, (including 30-70 references plus 2-3 figures and/or tables (if required). They may address any subject within the scope of the journal. The goal of the Mini reviews is to provide a concise summary of a particular field in a manner understandable to all readers.
It is essential that authors prepare their manuscripts according to the instructions/specifications listed below. The length and effectiveness of the peer review process will largely depend upon the care used by authors in preparing their manuscripts. Therefore, authors are strongly encouraged to read these instructions carefully before preparing/submitting a manuscript for publication.
Please read the following instructions carefully and for any questions, please contact at
Manuscripts should be prepared as word processing documents on A4, or Letter size paper, leaving a liberal margin (2 cm) on all four sides. The manuscript should be typed double-spaced throughout including references and tables. All figures and tables should be in the text and one additional copy given on a separate page.
Fonts: Times New Roman and point size should be 12.
Tables: Tables should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and should be in the text itself and should have an explanatory caption that should be as concise as possible.
Figures and images: The figures and images should be clear, easy to read and of good quality. All the figures/images must be in the text and be numbered with Arabic numerals.
To help in formatting images (including tables and figures) or multimedia files, please submit the paper with additional separate attachments, also apart from in the text.
The manuscript should be in the following order:
• Title page
• Materials and Methods
• Results and Discussion
• Acknowledgements (if any)
Title (short title)
The title should be relatively short but informative. If a long title is necessary, please prepare an optional short title.
Name(s) of author(s)
A list of all authors of the paper should be prepared. It should contain full name.
Name and address of workplace(s)
Authors’ affiliations should be indicated in this section. Either endnote or footnote (endnote recommended) can be used to present additional information (for example: permanent, adequate postal addresses).
Personal e-mail address(es)
At least one e-mail address is needed. It will be used as the corresponding author’s email address in all contacts with the authors.
An abstract must accompany every article. It should be a brief summary of the significant items of the main paper. An abstract should give concise information about the content of the core idea of your paper. It should be informative and not only present the general scope of the paper but also indicate the main results and conclusions. An abstract should not normally exceed 250 words.
List of all keywords proposed by the authors, separated by commas. Up to 5 key terms can be selected.
It should present the subject of paper clearly, indicate the scope of the subject, present the goals of paper, novelty of research work and finally the organization of paper.
Materials and Methods
Animals, chemicals and permission from animal ethical committee should be mentioned should be mentioned in the first paragraphs. Newly introduced techniques should be described in detail to allow easy repetition. Any modification should be mentioned briefly, with proper references. Techniques which have been previously described should be mentioned in brief only, with proper references, unless they were published in sources that are not easily accessible. The experimental part should be written in sufficient detail to enable others to repeat the authors’ work. Chemical compounds should be named according to the systematic rules of IUPAC or Chemical Abstracts. Units and dimensions should be expressed according to the metric system and SI units.
Results and Discussion
It may be combined or kept separate and may be further divided into subsections. It should deal with the major findings and their explanation/interpretations.
It should represent the summary of the important findings.
Information concerning research grant support and the assistance of colleagues or similar notes of appreciation should appear in Acknowledgements section at the end of the paper.
The references should be cited in the text in large brackets not in superscript or subscript. A complete reference should comprise the following:
An article in a journal
Willner I, Basnar B, Willner B. Nanoparticle–enzyme hybrid systems for nanobiotechnology. The FEBS journal. 2007; 274(2): 302-9.
Author's Initials Surname. Title, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication, Year of publication;page no.
RL Ashley. In Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections, 3rd ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999; pp. 489-513.
Author's Initials Surname. MSc/PhD/DSc thesis, University (town, country, year of publication).
RJ David. PhD thesis, Edinburgh University (Edinburgh, UK, 1998).
Patents: AB Inventor1, CD Inventor, (Holder), Country Code and patent number (registration year).
There is a publication fees of USD$150 per article. Please Note that the fees is payable only when the article is accepted after review.
The following items should be supplied:
- Cover letter
- Names of potential referees(if any)
Human and animal investigation ethics
Manuscripts describing any experimental work with animals and human subjects should include a statement that the appropriate Ethical Committee has approved it. The method section must include a statement to evidence that the investigation was permitted and that concern consent was obtained.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.